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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| July-September  | Volume 7 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 28, 2016

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Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Intention-to-treat versus per-protocol analysis
Priya Ranganathan, CS Pramesh, Rakesh Aggarwal
July-September 2016, 7(3):144-146
DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.184823  PMID:27453832
During the conduct of clinical trials, it is not uncommon to have protocol violations or inability to assess outcomes. This article in our series on common pitfalls in statistical analysis explains the complexities of analyzing results from such trials and highlights the importance of "intention-to-treat" analysis.
  83 16,277 3,120
Challenges in recruitment and retention of clinical trial subjects
Rashmi Ashish Kadam, Sanghratna Umakant Borde, Sapna Amol Madas, Sundeep Santosh Salvi, Sneha Saurabh Limaye
July-September 2016, 7(3):137-143
DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.184820  PMID:27453831
Background: Successful recruitment of patients is known to be one of the most challenging aspects in conduct of randomized controlled trials. Inadequate patient retention during conduct of trial affects conclusive results. Objective: To assess the level of challenges faced by Indian investigators in recruitment and retention of trial subjects. Methods: We developed a survey questionnaire on challenges encountered by investigators in subject recruitment and retention which was hosted on a web portal. Results: Seventy-three investigators from India participated in the survey. The frequently encountered challenges in subject recruitment were complexity of study protocol (38%), lack of awareness about clinical trials in patients (37%), and sociocultural issues related to trial participation (37%). About 63% of participants strongly agreed that creating a positive awareness about clinical trials among people through press and media, having a dedicated clinical research coordinator for trial (50.7%), and designing a recruitment strategy prior to study initiation (46.6%) would enhance recruitment. Almost 50.7% of participants agreed that interacting with medical community in vicinity of the study site and educating patients about clinical trials during routine outpatient department visits (46.6%) would enhance recruitment. Experiencing a serious adverse event, subject's fear for study procedures (47%) and side effects (44%) were thought to have a moderate effect on subject retention. Conclusion: Our survey has put forth factors related to negative publicity by media, lack of patient education about clinical trials; complex study designs are barriers to clinical trial recruitment in India. It is essential to devise innovative and effective strategies focusing on education of public and mass media about clinical research in India.
  45 6,215 903
Emerging role of bioinformatics tools and software in evolution of clinical research
Supreet Kaur Gill, Ajay Francis Christopher, Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal
July-September 2016, 7(3):115-122
DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.184782  PMID:27453827
Clinical research is making toiling efforts for promotion and wellbeing of the health status of the people. There is a rapid increase in number and severity of diseases like cancer, hepatitis, HIV etc, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Clinical research involves drug discovery and development whereas clinical trials are performed to establish safety and efficacy of drugs. Drug discovery is a long process starting with the target identification, validation and lead optimization. This is followed by the preclinical trials, intensive clinical trials and eventually post marketing vigilance for drug safety. Softwares and the bioinformatics tools play a great role not only in the drug discovery but also in drug development. It involves the use of informatics in the development of new knowledge pertaining to health and disease, data management during clinical trials and to use clinical data for secondary research. In addition, new technology likes molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, proteomics and quantitative structure activity relationship in clinical research results in faster and easier drug discovery process. During the preclinical trials, the software is used for randomization to remove bias and to plan study design. In clinical trials software like electronic data capture, Remote data capture and electronic case report form (eCRF) is used to store the data. eClinical, Oracle clinical are software used for clinical data management and for statistical analysis of the data. After the drug is marketed the safety of a drug could be monitored by drug safety software like Oracle Argus or ARISg. Therefore, softwares are used from the very early stages of drug designing, to drug development, clinical trials and during pharmacovigilance. This review describes different aspects related to application of computers and bioinformatics in drug designing, discovery and development, formulation designing and clinical research.
  10 5,764 1,064
Assessment and classification of protocol deviations
Ravindra Bhaskar Ghooi, Neelambari Bhosale, Reena Wadhwani, Pathik Divate, Uma Divate
July-September 2016, 7(3):132-136
DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.184817  PMID:27453830
Introduction: Deviations from the approved trial protocol are common during clinical trials. They have been conventionally classified as deviations or violations, depending on their impact on the trial. Methods: A new method has been proposed by which deviations are classified in five grades from 1 to 5. A deviation of Grade 1 has no impact on the subjects' well-being or on the quality of data. At the maximum, a deviation Grade 5 leads to the death of the subject. This method of classification was applied to deviations noted in the center over the last 3 years. Results: It was observed that most deviations were of Grades 1 and 2, with fewer falling in Grades 3 and 4. There were no deviations that led to the death of the subject (Grade 5). Discussion: This method of classification would help trial managers decide on the action to be taken on the occurrence of deviations, which would be based on their impact.
  8 4,297 725
Comparison of good clinical practice compliance and readability ease of the informed consents between observational and interventional clinical studies in the Emirates
Satish Chandrasekhar Nair, Halah Ibrahim, Omar Sherif Askar
July-September 2016, 7(3):123-127
DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.184815  PMID:27453828
Background: Expansion of clinical trials activity into emerging regions has raised concerns regarding participant rights and research ethics. Increasing numbers of observational studies are now conducted in developing economies, including the United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: This study compares the content of information provided, Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guideline compliance, and readability of informed consent forms (ICFs) for observational compared to interventional studies. Results: GCP compliance for observational studies averaged at 79.5% + 6.8%, significantly (P < 0.001) lower than 92.2 + 5.0 percent for interventional studies. Readability ease and readability-grade level were assessed with Flesch-Kincaid scales. Results indicated higher readability grade-level 12.4 + 0.4 (P < 0.001) and lower readability Flesch-Kincaid reading ease score 35.7 + 3.6 for observational studies, as compared to 10.3 + 1.6 and 47.8 + 7.4 for interventional studies. Conclusion: Mandatory training for investigators is essential to provide readability ease and GCP compliance for the ICFs for the local population.
  6 2,994 283
Assessment of adherence to the statistical components of consolidated standards of reporting trials statement for quality of reports on randomized controlled trials from five pharmacology journals
Sachin Satpute, Manthan Mehta, Sandeep Bhete, Dnyneshwar Kurle
July-September 2016, 7(3):128-131
DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.184816  PMID:27453829
Background: The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement is a device to standardize reporting and improve the quality of controlled trials. However, little attention is paid to the statistical components in the CONSORT checklist. The present study evaluates the randomized controlled trials [RCTs] published in five high impact pharmacology journals with respect to its statistical methods. Methods: Randomized Controlled Trials [RCTs] published in the years 2013 & 2014 in five pharmacology journals with high impact factor, The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (JCP), British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (BJCP), European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (EJCP), Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics (JPP) and Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) were assessed for adherence to the statistical components of CONSORT statement. Results: Of the 174 RCTs analysed, 103 described the method of sample size calculation. Of the five journals, maximum reports in JCP (34/50) and minimum in IJP (13/31) adhered to the CONSORT checklist [item 7a-sample size calculation]. Most reports mentioned the statistical methods used for analysis of data. (171/174) as per the checklist [item 12=statistical methods used]. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was the most commonly used test (88/174). The software used for statistical analysis was mentioned in 111 RCTs and SPSS was used more frequently (58/111). The exact p value was stated in 108 reports. Certain errors in statistical analysis were also noted (40/174). Conclusion: These findings show inconsistencies and non- adherence to the statistical components of the CONSORT statement especially with respect to sample size calculation. Special attention must be paid to the statistical accuracy of the reports.
  6 2,670 303
Reporting of adverse events for marketed drugs: Need for strengthening safety database
Aditi Anand Apte
July-September 2016, 7(3):111-114
DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.184781  PMID:27453826
Pharmacovigilance is an evolving discipline in the Indian context. However, there is limited regulatory guidance for adverse event reporting outside the purview of clinical trials. There are number of deficiencies in the framework for adverse event reporting from the perspective of pharma industry, health-care professional and general public due to which adverse events for marketed drugs are highly underreported. This article discusses the need to strengthen national safety database by promoting and mandating reporting of adverse events by all the stakeholders.
  1 4,576 424
How informed are our subjects?
Ravindra B Ghooi
July-September 2016, 7(3):109-110
DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.184780  PMID:27453825
  - 2,377 433
Single-versus double-masking in glaucoma clinical trials
DL DeMill, Barbara M Wirostko, Lindsay A Nelson, Jeanette A Stewart, William C Stewart
July-September 2016, 7(3):147-148
DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.184826  PMID:27453833
  - 1,908 186